After studying at Khabarovsk technical school and completing military service in the armed forces, Oleg Kozhemyako attended the Far-East Institute of Soviet Trade (Pacific State University of Economics) specialising as an economist. He also has a PhD in economics.
He started his professional career in production in 1981 and progressed three grades from locksmith to foreman at Primorskiy State District Power Station.
In October 1989 he created the “Primorskiy” production cooperative, which was converted in 1992 into the “Primorskoe” food production association.
In 1995 he was elected as Chairman of the Board of Directors for OJSC Preobrazhenskaya Base of Trawling Fleet.
From 1998-2002 he was Chairman of the Board of Directors for OJSC Preobrazhenskaya Base of Trawling Fleet.
On 9 December 2001 he was elected as deputy of the Primorskiy Krai Legislative Assembly, Third Convocation, and became a member of the Committee on Food Policy and Management of Natural Resources.
On 27 November 2002 he was elected as a Primorskiy Krai Legislative Assembly representative in the Federation Council of the Russian Federal Assembly and became a member of the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Committee, the Youth Affairs and Sports Commission and the Data Policy Commission.
Since October 2004 he has been an adviser to S. Mironov, President of the Federation Council of the Russian Federation.
On 18 January 2004 he was appointed as Vice Governor of Koryak Autonomous Okrug and oversaw the supply of goods to northern Russian territories and fuel to the Okrug.
On 9 March 2005 he was provisionally appointed as Acting Governor of Koryak Autonomous Okrug.
On 14 April 2005 he was confirmed as Governor of the Okrug Legislative Assembly.
In July 2007 he became a member of the advisory committee for the State Council of the Russian Federation.
In 2007-2008 he was an aide to the Chief of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation.
On 20 October 2008 the Amur Oblast Legislative Assembly confirmed him as Governor of the Oblast.
On 25 March 2015 he was provisionally appointed as Acting Governor of Sakhalin Oblast by Vladimir Putin, President of the Russian Federation.
He is Actual State Councillor of the Russian Federation, 3rd grade.